updating oE and_bits

Bitwise Operations


<built-in> function and_bits(object a, object b) 

performs the bitwise AND operation on corresponding bits in two objects. A bit in the result will be 1 only if the corresponding bits in both arguments are 1.

  1. a : one of the objects involved
  2. b : the second object

An object, whose shape depends on the shape of both arguments. Each atom in this object is obtained by bitwise AND between atoms on both objects.


The arguments to this function may be atoms or sequences. The rules for operations on sequences apply. The atoms in the arguments must be representable as 32-bit numbers, either signed or unsigned.

If you intend to manipulate full 32-bit values, you should declare your variables as atom, rather than integer. Euphoria's integer type is limited to 31-bits.

Results are treated as signed numbers. They will be negative when the highest-order bit is 1.

To understand the binary representation of a number you should display it in hexadecimal notation. Use the %x format of printf. Using int_to_bits is an even more direct approach.

Example 1:
 a = and_bits(#0F0F0000, #12345678) 
-- a is #02040000 
Example 2:
 a = and_bits(#FF, {#123456, #876543, #2211}) 
-- a is {#56, #43, #11} 
Example 3:
 a = and_bits(#FFFFFFFF, #FFFFFFFF) 
-- a is -1 
-- Note that #FFFFFFFF is a positive number, 
-- but the result of a bitwise operation is interpreted 
-- as a signed 32-bit number, so it's negative. 
See Also:

or_bits, xor_bits, not_bits, int_to_bits

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